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Tacuini sanitatis (Strasbourg: Johann Schott, 1531).

An illustrated Latin translation of the Taqwim al-Sihhah (The maintenance of health), originally written by the eleventh-century Iraqi physician Ibn Butlan (died ca. 1038). This work, which is tabular in form, treats matters of hygiene, dietetics and exercise. It emphasises the benefits of daily attention to personal physical and mental well-being. Ibn Butlan came from the Christian community and died as a monk in Antioch. The continued popularity and publication of medieval texts of Middle Eastern origin into the sixteenth century and beyond demonstrate the influence that Arabic and Islamic culture had on early modern Europe. These were often augmented by their publishers with woodcut or engraved images, and examples from this text are reproduced below.

Bequest of William Crashaw.

Images (click to enlarge) 
Table from the Latin translation of the Taqwim al-Sihhah.
Table from the Latin translation of the Taqwim al-Sihhah.
Illustrations of states of wellbeing.
Illustrations of states of wellbeing.
Further illustrations of states of wellbeing.
Further illustrations of states of wellbeing.
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