Vellum, 11 x 7.25, ff. 23 + 182 + 4, 21 lines to a page. Late 13th and 14thcent. (between 1397 and 1400).
Ex dono Caroli Baker:
1672. Memoriale ven. viri Francisci Leeke quondam huius Collegii discipuli et nuper Ecclesiae Collegiatae B. Mariae de Southwell Canonici.
At end: William Leeke (xvi).
Collation : a2 | A8 – C8 (7 canc.) | 18 210 34 | 48 – 238 | b2.
f. 3a sqq. 46 full-page pictures enclosed in coloured frames with squares in corners and various patterns. They occupy 3 quires A8 B8 C8 (vii is missing). 13th cent., finest work. English?
1. (f. 3) de creacione bestiarum. Ge i. fecit deus bestias terre et cetera.
Trefoiled arch with architecture above. Clouds, sun and moon at the top, blue chequered ground, red spots. Christ facing R., cruciform and cusped nimb, L. hand holds robe, R. points. Eagle and two white birds in air; owl, peacock and two others in a tree. Lions, deer, ox, dog, etc. stand face L.
Red reticulation, Creation of Eve, L. Christ. Adam asleep on mound with trees and dog and hare. Christ takes Eve’s hand. Sun, moon and clouds above. Usual scheme in other respects.
3. (f. 4) De serpente decipiente adam et euam. Ge. iij.
Blue ground, red patterns, red tree, three branches, red and blue leaves. Serpent has woman’s head and arms, hair in a net, and linen coif. Eve L., Adam R. Eve has yellow hair, Adam dark.
4. (f. 4b) Cherubim eiecit Adam et euam de paradiso. Ge. iii.
Expulsion, gate L. Clouds, sun, moon above: red reticulated ground. Angel with cusped nimbus and fillet, flaming sword. Adam and Eve with figleaves. Tree on R.
5. (f. 5) Toil. Blue ground, pattern of red spray. Clouds above. Half-length angel emerges downwards from them. Tree. Adam digs and looks up backward. Tree. Eve on mound spinning. Drapery round waists of both. De penis inflictis Ade et eue et eorum posteritati. Ge. iii.
6. (f. 5b) Sacrifices of Cain and Abel. Pink reticulated ground. Half-length angel emerges from clouds. Abel, beardless, in long robes, with a fine face and cusped nimbus, kneels face R., puts a lamb into a flame on a mound. Cain in shorter robes faces L. standing, beardless, close cap tied under chin. Holds a sheaf. De oblacionibus abel et caym deo factis. Ge. iiii.
7. (f. 6) Death of Abel. Blue ground with red rosettes.
Tree, three branches, on it a monkey shooting with a bow at an owl and another bird. Cain straddling over prostrate Abel, jawbone raised in L. hand, R. hand in Abel’s hair, who has no nimbus and is smiling. Tree on R. De caym qui interfecit abel fratrem suum. Ge. iiii.
Tree. Christ, face R., upright blank scroll in L. hand, R. hand raised. Cain goes off R. looking back at him, he has a blue iron hook and scythe on shoulder, sickle in girdle, bare head, two short horns curving forward. De egressu cayn a facie domini qui habitauit in terra profugus. Ge. iiii.
9. (f. 7) Command to Noe. Blue ground, patterns.
Christ admonishing. Scroll in L., R. raised. Noe kneels on one knee face L. , peaked cap, axe on shoulder. De Noe recipiente mandatum domini. Ge. v.
The Ark has its keel fixed in two cleft stumps. Noe’s hood and cloak lie below. A dragon’s head at each end of the ark. Noe leans his chest on an auger and turns it with both hands. Half the sides are built. De noe fabricante archam. Ge vi.
11. (f. 8) Entering into the Ark. Blue chequer. Sun, moon and clouds.
Crowd of six, in front Noe’s wife. Noe mounts a ladder into the ark, which has four stories besides the hull. It rests on dark green waters which are full of dead men and beasts: animals and birds seen at windows of ark, birds in three upper stories. De ingressu noe in archam cum filiis suis. Ge. vij.
Three men in mail (as Trinity Apocalypse, covering the head); Abraham is the foremost one, he bows. Melchisedech comes from R.: he wears a foliated crown and a single robe, long and blue, and a white scarf passing round his neck which holds three loaves and a jug depends from it. De uictoria abrahe contra iiiior reges et de occursu melchisedech offerens ei panem et uinum. Ge. xiiii.
13. (f. 9) Abraham and the Trinity. Blue ground with patterns.
Abraham kneels, face R. and hands raised, to a large figure, seated full-face on cushioned (backless) throne. Its hands are raised, the palms outward. It has three beardless heads with cusped nimbi and two uplifted wings, and wears a blue robe over red. De domino apparente abrahe in figura trinitatis. Gr. xviii.
The same figure. Abraham on R. kneels and offers a covered jug and three cakes. De abraham offerente panem et uinum tribus angelis. Ge. xvi(!).
15. (f. 10) Sacrifice of Isaac. Blue ground latticed.
Angel coming out of cloud seizes the blade of the sword by the middle and points down to the ram standing by a tree. Abraham in scarlet with sword raised over shoulder looks round, L. hand on forehead of Isaac who kneels with hands bound on vested stone altar. Below this an ass with a packsaddle, grazing. De temptacione abraham et immolacione arietis. Ge. xvii.
Dead child on the ground in graveclothes. Two women face R. The second holds a nude living child. Its hand is caught by a mailed soldier who stands behind. Solomon cross-legged holding upright sword, foliated crown, L. hand in string round neck, slight beard. He is on a cushioned seat. Below this picture are three couplets De iudicio salomonis duarum meretricum de infante diuidendo iii. Reg. iii.
Diuide, rex inquit, hec annuit illa reclamat.
Tunc rex. ecce parens nam uice matris amat.
De leto pueri que plus est uisa moueri
Assertrix ueri potuit merendo uideri.
Non mihi nec tibi det puerum rex immo trucidet
Nolo trucidetur, immo truci tibi detur.
17. (f.11) Annunciation. Gold ground, incised pattern: roof above. A second artist begins at this point.
Angel, palm and scroll AVE : MARIA: blue cusped nimbus. Plant in pot. Virgin turning from book-desk. Dove at her ear on R. with blue cusped nimb. De concepcione saluatoris. Luc. i.
They embrace, one nimbus is blue, one scarlet, both cusped. De osculo marie et elyzabeth. Luc. i. Exultauit infans, etc.
19. (f. 12) Nativity. Gold patterned.
Bed across front of picture. The Virgin with a gold nimb (head to L.) suckles the Child, who has gold nimbus crossed with blue. Below the bed, heads of ox and ass over manger. Above the bed the midwife, face L., a cloth over her hands. Joseph (no nimb) in gold cap, seated R. sleeps. De ortu saluatoris. Luc. ii. et mat. i.
Angel stands palm in hand, pointing. First shepherd holds in a barking dog and pushes his cap off his brow. Cattle on a mound. On the top a second youthful shepherd in red hood sits cutting a stick laid across his lap. De angelo nunciante pastoribus gaudium magnum. Luc. ii.
21. (f. 13) Journey of the Magi. Gold hatching and blue retic.
The Magi on horseback with foliated crowns (two of gold) point in different directions, one on L. is beardless, the one in C. bearded, the one on R. older. De tribus regibus uenientibus ab oriente querentibus ubi puer nasceretur. Mt. ii.
The Magi, on foot, face R. The foremost holds two white gloves in L., R. raised. Herod in a chair cross-legged, R. hand on knee, L. over back of chair. De tribus regibus clam uocatis ab herode qui diligenter didicit ab eis tempus stelle que apparuit eis. Mt. ii.
23. (f. 14) Adoration of the Magi. Gold hatching, rubbed.
Christ on the Virgin’s knee, in a purple robe over scarlet and green, blesses. He has hair, and a cross-nimb. She is crowned (cusped nimbus). Two Magi stand, one kneels. De muneribus magorum Ihesu saluatori oblatis. Mt. ii.
The three are in bed. Two sleep, the furthest one sits up and holds out hands toward half-length Angel flying down from the R. with a scroll. De accepto in sompnis ne magi redirent ad herodem. Mt ii.
25. (f. 15) Presentation. Gold.
From L. Joseph with doves. Zebel, gold nimb. The Virgin, red nimbus, supports Christ standing on marble altar and looking back at her. He has cross-nimb, purple robe, small book in hand. Simeon, red nimb, cloth over hands, which are stretched out to Christ. De purificacione beate marie videlicet de ypopanti domini. Luc. ii.
Four mailed soldiers (faces as in Trin. Apoc.), three children, one mother, holding broad leaf-like object, scarlet (a clothes-bat). Herod on throne which has hairy legs, cross-legged, sword in hand, red crown. De nece paruulorum innocentum. Mt. ii.
27. (f. 16) Flight. Gold.
Christ in swaddling clothes. The Virgin in long blue robe drawn over head. Joseph, coat on stick over shoulder, leads ass to R. De fuga saluatoris in egiptum. Mt. ii.
John, long hair, in two robes, the upper one hairy, pours water from a jug on the hair or shoulders of Christ (full-face, nude, blessing) standing in heap of green waters. Dove, vertically head downwards, cross-nimbed, over him. Angel on R. with seamless coat over arm, full-face, but looks L. De ihesu baptizato in iordane a iohanne baptista. Mt. iii. Mar. i. Luc. iii.
29. (f. 17) Lazarus raised. Gold.
Peter. Christ in awkward pose, book in L. held to body, R. arm straight out. Lazarus sits up in his graveclothes in tomb on three open arches. One of three nimbed women on the other side of the tomb supports him. De suscitacione lazari. Jo. xi.
Four Apostles and Peter with key on shoulder. Christ on ass, blessing. Foal walks beneath ass. A man takes his robe (semi-transparent) off over his head; only his drawers are left. R. gate and tower in three stages with people in each. In the two lowest, children with leaves. De processione obuiam saluatore in die palmarum. Mt. xi(!)
31. (f. 18) Cena Domini. Gold, hatched.
Three Apostles, Peter face R., Christ, large cruciform nimbus Andrew? Two Apostles.
| | gives sop face L.
| John on his lap |
| | to mouth
of Judas stooping
beardless, no nimbus.
De cena saluatoris cum discipulis suis et iuda proditore. Mt. xxvi. Marc. xiiii. Luc. xxii. Joh. xii.
Crowd Peter with sword Judas book in Crowd, four men,
?John cuts off ear of kissing hand one smites with mace.
De amputacione auricule malchi. Mt. xxvi. Marc. xiiii. Luc. xxi. Joh. xviii.
33. (f. 19) Flagellation. Dark red, latticed. A third artist begins at this point.
Man in close cap Pillar, Man bareheaded, with
with whip Christ, bundle of rods.
De ligacione saluatoris ad columpnam et illius fustigacione. Mt. xxvii et Joh. xviii.
Virgin, fingers Christ, side pierced John, book,
clasped, looks R. Three nails looks R.
They stand on grounds below the frame. De saluatore cruci affixo. Mt. xxvii. Marc. xv. Luc. xxiii. Joh. xix.
35. (f. 20) Descent into Hell. Ground as for 33.
Christ, spear with small cross and pennon, its point in the mouth of a beast on which he treads. In L. hand he takes the hand of Adam. Eight souls. Adam, Eve, David with crown, are recognisable. Three devils behind, two with hooks, one blows horn. Gates lie crosswise in Hell-mouth. De saluatore descendente ad inferos ut spoliaret infernum.
Virgin takes hand of Christ. Man supports the body. R. kneeling man takes out the nail of the feet with long pincers. John stands R., hands raised. De corpore saluatoris a pilato concesso Joseph ab armithia. Marc. xv in fine.
37. (f.21) Burial. Red, latticed.
Four mailed men with pennoned lances sleeping in three arches of the tomb. Man in cap at the head, another at the feet. Five figures on the other side of the tomb: John, the Virgin? in red, a man without nimb, with vase, two nimbed women. The Body in a purple robe with green border. De tribus mariis uenientibus mane ad sepulchrum saluatoris militibus custodientibus corpus Ihesu sed dormientibus. Marc. ult.
The title and picture here do not agree.
Christ full-length in clouds with book, blessing. An angel in air on each side, points. Four Apostles and Peter on L. The Virgin in the centre. Five Apostles and Andrew? on R. De ascensione domini. Marc. ult. in fine et Ac. ii.
39. (f. 22) Pentecost. Red, latticed.
The Dove descends vertically from the clouds. Red lines go from it to the heads of the assembly. L. five Apostles and Peter with the keys, seated. C. the Virgin, crowned. R. Andrew with his saltire cross and four Apostles. De missione spiritus sancti in apostolos domini. Ac. ii.
a. Angel with cross. Virgin crowned kneeling. Christ seated in octofoil, robed, holding up His hands. John Baptist, bearded and nimbed, kneels, face L. Angel with lance and scourge.
β. At the corners four Angels coming out of clouds, with trumpets. C. a circle containing (1) Peter and the Blessed (e.g. a King and a Bishop); (2) the Cursed in Hell-mouth; (3) four rising. De saluatore ueniente (bis) ab ultimum iudicium. Mt. xxv. ubi dicitur. Venite benedicti, etc.
41. (f. 23) Sickness of the Virgin. A peaked tent-like roof (green), ground below red, above blue.
She lies on a bed across the picture. A maid with crown-like head-dress adjusts the pillow. John helps, laying his hand on the Virgin’s arm. A maid on R. with a small cushion. De assumpcione b. marie virginis, et primo de infirmitate sua.
Virgin with hands crossed, in a costume much resembling a chasuble and alb, lies on bier. Beyond it John with palm, Peter with key. Angel with soul seated in his arms, robed and crowned. Paul with book. Other Apostles on R. De morte b. marie et de anima eius suscepta ab angelis.
43. (f. 24) De iudeis pendentibus ad feretrum b. virginis. Blue ground, latticed.
Bier carried by John at the head and five Apostles. The Virgin’s face is seen. Three Jews, with feet off the ground and hands attached to the pall, one has a cap, two look like boys. At the foot Peter (Paul) and four Apostles.
Marble tomb on three open trefoil arches: in it the Virgin, hands crossed on breast. John and five Apostles at the head, Peter and five at the foot, lay the stone over her. Two angels censing out of the clouds. De maria mortua et in monumento sepulta.
45. (f. 25) Coronation. An octofoil: ground red within, blue without, latticed.
The Virgin seated with hands joined. Christ crowned, with orb, divided into three portions as usual, and with bannered cross, adjusts the crown on her head. Both crowns are blue. De b. maria a ihesu filio suo et saluatore nostro in celis coronata.
He sits on a cushioned seat: with red nimb, in mail, over which is a long blue robe which partly covers his crown. The harp is very elaborately carved with a dragon, and a pierced sounding-board. David has long bushy hair and beard. A little fat white dog sits smiling on L. on the seat, face R.
Ad honorem dei et uirginis gloriose necnon ss. confessorum ffrancisci
Antonii et episcopi Lodowici. In hoc opusculo tercio kalendarii
ad instanciam nobilissime domine Domine Johanne principisse
Wallie . . . . . . . f. 26
-duracio tempus et hora. Expl. canon.
Inc. tabula docens Algorismum legere, etc. . . . 27b
Tabula docens pro cxl annis a natiu. Regis Ricardi secundi (1367) 28
Kalendar in red and black with table of cycles opposite each month 28b
Tables of Planets and Moon . . . . . 39b-41
Ymago signorum, with a good picture of the usual kind showing the
influence of the Zodiacal signs on the human body: on a blue
ground with white pattern . . . . . 41b
Table of Eclipses of Sun and Moon, with figures in gold and blue
(1387-1462) . . . . . . 43
46, 47a blank.
On 47b in another hand the Collect Suscipe dignare.
Psalter . . . . . . . 48
Initials in blue and red.
Cantica . . . . . . . 187b
Litany . . . . . . . 202
Both Kalendar and Litany are of Sarum.
f. 26a. Bordered page. The Preface to Calendar and Tables of Alfonsus by John Somur ordinis minorum, 1380, is dedicated to Iohanna Princess of Wales, mother of Richard II, ad meridiem tamen uniuersitatis oxonie ex precepto reuerendi patris fratris Thome Kyngisburi ministri anglie.
In the Kalendar I note:
Jan. 6. ao doi 1367. Natus est Ricus rex IIus anglie.
9. 1382. Natus est dominus Edmundus de holand.
10. Ob. domine Eleanore comitisse arundell matris doe alesie comitisse kancie.
a. d. 1372.
25. Ob. doi Rici com. arudell. a. d. 1375.
Feb. 19 (later). Ob. Thome Arnedelle quondam archiepiscopi Cante.
Mar David and Chad do not occur.
Ap. 3. a. d. 1376. Natus est Ricus fil. domini Thome comitis Cancie.
25. Ob. dni Th. de holand Com. Cancie & dni de Wake. a. d. 1397.
May 21. Ob. Ric. de holand fil. domini Th. de holand Com. Cancie. a. d. 1396.
June 7. Ob. doe ane regie angl. a. d. 1393. I. fo. Pentec.
Sept. 8. a. d. 1372. Natus est. dns Thos. de holand dux Surr’ Thomas Canc’.
21. Ob. Ric. com. arundell a. d. 1397.
Oct. 13. a. d. 1370. Nata est domina alianora coissa Marchie.
Nov. 2. a. d. 1374. Natus est dominus Johannes de holand fil. Th. de holand. com. Cancie.
5. Ob. d. Ioh. de holand fil. do. Th. de holand com. Cancie. a. d. 1394.
29. a. d. 1384. Nata est domina Alianora de holand.
Dec. 4. a. d. 1389. Nata est domina Anna de holand.
The book was shown at the Burlington Fine Arts Club Exhibition of MSS. in 1908: Mr S. C. Cockerell in his Catalogue (no. 48) says of the latter portion that it was written between 1397 and 1400, for a member of the Holland family, probably Sir Thomas Holland, Duke of Surrey and third Earl of Kent. In the thirteenth century pictures he distinguishes the work of three artists.1 Of the pictures in general he says: They are monumental compositions of the greatest interest and importance, and it is unfortunate that there is no clue to their place of origin.231 K.26
In quire B, i and viii have been resewn onto modern paper stubs, and the bottom corners of iv and v have been mended by a similar stitch onto stubs.
George Henderson, MS. K. 26 in the Library of St John's College (Cambridge, unpublished PhD dissertation, 1959).
Nigel Morgan, Early gothic manuscripts [II] 1250-1285 (London, 1988) no. 179, pp. 182-3.
P.R. Robinson, Catalogue of dated and datable manuscripts c.737-1600 in Cambridge libraries (Cambridge, 1988) vol. I, p. 89, no. 312; vol. II pl. 182 (fol. 41v).
For 2. see The Words of Creation (Turin, 1998), pl. 57.
For 3. see The Eagle 67:285, 13.
Gussenhoven, Frances, 'The serpent with a matron's face: medieval iconography of Satan in the Garden of Eden', European Medieval Drama 4 (2000), 207-230, fig. 4.
Nigel Morgan, Early gothic manuscripts [II] 1250-1285 (London, 1988), pl. 381.
Debra Higgs Strickland, 'Bodies modern and medieval', eSharp 8 (Autumn 2006), 1-10.
For 5. see The Words of Creation (Turin, 1998), pl. 80.
For 6. see R. Melinkoff, The Mark of Cain (London, 1981).
Meyer Schapiro, 'Cain's jawbone that did the first murder', Art Bulletin 24:3 (1942).
George Henderson, Studies in English Bible Illustration Vol. II (London, 1985).
Nigel Morgan, Early gothic manuscripts [II] 1250-1285 (London, 1988), pl. 382.
6 and 7 are reproduced in R. Melinkoff, 'Cain and the Jews', Journal of Jewish Art 6 (1979), 16-38. Copy in St John's College Library.
For 7. see The Eagle 67:285, 13.
For 8. see The Words of Creation (Turin, 1998), pl. 87.
Francis Lacassin (ed.), Le Juif Errant. Un Temoin du Temps (Paris, 2001),
For 10. see I. Friel, The Good Ship (London, 1985).
10 used as an illustration in Dr F. Moll, 'Der Schiffbaumeister in der Christlichen Kunst', Gute Fahrt. Ein wochenblatt für Schiffer 27:5 (2 March 1930). Copy in St John's College Library.
10 and 11 reproduced in the Burlington Fine Arts Club Exhibition Catalogue (London, 1908).
For 11. see The Eagle 67:285, 13.
Gussenhoven, Frances, 'The serpent with a matron's face: medieval iconography of Satan in the Garden of Eden', European Medieval Drama 4 (2000), 207-230, fig. 10.
For 13. see Debra Higgs Strickland, 'Monsters and Christian Enemies', History Today 50:2 (2000), 50.
M. C. Davlin, The Place of God in Piers Plowman and Medieval Art (Ashgate, 2001), pp. 96-7.
Kathryn A. Smith, Art, Identity and Devotion in Fourteenth-Century England: Three Women and their Books of Hours (London: The British Library, 2003) pp. 171-2.
George Henderson, Gothic Art and Civilisation (London: The Folio Society, 2004) pl.101.
Debra Higgs Strickland, 'Bodies modern and medieval', eSharp 8 (Autumn 2006), 1-10.
For 14. see George Henderson, Gothic (Harmondswoth, 1978), pl. 96.
Peter Brieger, English Art 1216 - 1307 (Oxford, 1957), pl. 673.
Jeffrey Hamburger, The Rothschild Canticles (New Haven, 1990), pp. 127, 286, fig. 201.
For 15. see The Eagle 67:285, 13.
For 16. see Nigel Morgan, Early gothic manuscripts [II] 1250-1285 (London, 1988), pl. 383.
For 26. see Nigel Morgan, Early gothic manuscripts [II] 1250-1285 (London, 1988), pl. 384.
For 32. see Nigel Morgan, Early gothic manuscripts [II] 1250-1285 (London, 1988), pl. 385.
For 33. see Nigel Morgan, Early gothic manuscripts [II] 1250-1285 (London, 1988), pl. 386.
For 35. see Nigel Morgan, Early gothic manuscripts [II] 1250-1285 (London, 1988), pl. 387.
For 39. see M. C. Davlin, The Place of God in Piers Plowman and Medieval Art (Ashgate, 2001), pp. 58-9.
For 41. see Nigel Morgan, Early gothic manuscripts [II] 1250-1285 (London, 1988), pl. 388.
For 43. see The Eagle 67:285, 13.
Peter Schäfer, Mirror of His beauty: feminine images of God from the Bible to the early Kabbalah (Princeton University Press, 2002), fig. 7.
For 46. see The Eagle 67:285, 13.
Nigel Morgan, Early gothic manuscripts [II] 1250-1285 (London, 1988), fig. 4.
Exhibited at the Royal Academy, British Primitives, 1923. Catalogue no. 108 (H. 7b and 8a).
Exhibited at the Victoria and Albert Museum, English Medieval Art, 1930. Catalogue no. 183. Illustrated pl. 43.
Exhibited at the Musée d'art et d'histoire du Judaїsme, Paris, Le Juif Errant, Un Témoin du Temps, 2002. Catalogue no. 3.
Exhibited (fols. 5v-6r) at the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, from 26 July to 11 December 2005. See the exhibition catalogue: P. Binski and S. Panayotova (eds.), The Cambridge Illuminations: Ten Centuries of Book Production in the Medieval West (London: Harvey Miller, 2005) no. 74.
1. Thus apportioned: nos. 1-16: 17-32: 33-46.