John Milton, Paradise lost, 4th edition (London, 1688).

An engraving of Satan tormenting the damned in Hell from the fourth edition of Milton's epic. This was the first illustrated edition of the text, produced twenty years after the first edition and fourteen years after Milton's death. It was also the first edition with which Jacob Tonson was associated. Paradise lost had not been particularly successful when Tonson bought half the copyright in 1683 (he obtained the other half in 1690). Tonson’s success as a publisher enabled him to popularise Milton's work by reproducing it in a variety of formats for different audiences, with such additions as critical notes, indexes and illustrations like the one on display, which was engraved by the Flemish émigré Michael Burgher. His marketing flair propelled the text to the position of national epic, and confirmed the status of Milton amongst the reading public.