Gaspare Tagliacozzi, Cheirurgia nova (Frankfurt: Johannes Saur, 1598)

This work, a reprint of the first book exclusively devoted to plastic surgery and particularly nasal reconstruction, was written by Gaspare Tagliacozzi (1545-1599) of Bologna, in response to the number of facial injuries caused by dueling and other forms of combat, as well as syphilis. His work covers the anatomy of the nose and includes sections on the restoration of the nose, lips, and ears by means of grafting skin, mainly from the upper arm. The engravings illustrating the surgical techniques and instruments are particularly fascinating. However the Church condemned his writings, instructing that his body be exhumed and reburied on unconsecrated ground. In the seventeenth century his groundbreaking work was derided and scorned, particularly in this country.